Wang Zhaoguo Li Tieying Ismail Amat He Luli (Female)
Ding Shisun Cheng Siwei Xu Jialu Jiang Zhenghua Gu Xiulian (female)
Raidi Sheng Huaren Lu Yongxiang Uyunqimg (female) Han Qide
The National People`s Congress is the highest organ of State power of the People`s Republic of China. Its main functions and powers include formulation of laws. delegating authority. policy formulation. and supervision of other governing organs.
I. Legislative Power:
The NPC has the right to enact and amend the Constitution of the People ` s Republic of China. and to enact and amend basic laws concerning criminal offenses. civil affairs. State organs. and other matters.
II. Delegating Authority:
The power to delegate authority allows the Congress to select. empower. and remove leadership and members of the highest State organs.
The NPC has the right to select the members of the Standing Committee of the NPC; to elect the president and vice-president of the People`s Republic of China; to appoint and approve premier. vice-premiers. State councillors. ministers in charge of ministries and commissions. auditor-general and secretary- general of the State Council; to elect the chairman of the Central Military Commission and decide other members of the Commission; and to elect the president of the Supreme People`s Court and the procurator-general of the Supreme People`s Procuratorate. The NPC has the right to remove any or all members it elects and decides. and is therefore t he final authority among all State organs.
III. Policy Formulation:
The NPC has the right to examine and approve government reports; to exam ine and approve the plan for national economic and social development and report s on its implementation; to examine and approve the State budget and reports on its implementation; to approve the establishment of provinces. autonomous region s and municipalities directly under the Central Government; to decide on the establishment of special administrative regions and the systems to be instituted wi thin these regions; and to declare war and sign treaties of peace. It also exerc ises other functions and powers as the supreme State power.
IV. Supervision of Governing Organs:
The NPC has the right to supervise the implementation of the Constitution. According to the Chinese Constitution. the State Council. the Supreme People ` s Court and the Supreme People`s Procuratorate are all invested by the NPC. are responsible to it. and supervised by it. The NPC`s exercise of its supervisory role is to oversee the actions of the government and other State organs on behalf of the people. This is an important guarantee for the normal and legal operation of the State apparatus.
Under the current Constitution and related laws. the NPC holds a session on the first quarter of each year. convened by its Standing Committee. A single term of a NPC deputy is five years.
The NPC Standing Committee is the permanent supreme State organ of power and legislation. It exercises the highest State power and legislative power when the NPC is not in session. The Standing Committee is composed of 153 members. none of whom can assume an office in State administrative. judicial or procuratorial organs. so as to maintain a separation of powers and to better supervise these organs.
The NPC Standing Committee has the right to interpret the Constitution a nd supervises its implementation; enacts and amends laws. with the exception of laws relating to fields reserved for the NPC as a whole. partially supplements and amends laws enacted by the NPC when that body is not in session. and interprets laws.
Special committees are permanent organs representing the NPC. When the NPC is in session. the main work of these committees is to study. examine and draw up related motions. When the NPC is not in session. these committees work under the direction of the NPC Standing Committee. Currently. there are eight permanent special committees the Ethnic Groups Committee. the Legal Committee. the Finance and Economics Committee. the Education. Science. Culture and Public Heal the Committee. the Foreign Affairs Committee. the Overseas Chinese Committee. the Committee for Internal and Judicial Affairs and the Committee on Environmental and Resource Protection.
The Presidency of People`s Republic of China
The President of the People`s Republic of China is the Head of State. as well as the supreme representative of China both internally and externally. The State presidency is an independent State apparatus and a component part of China`s State organization.
According to international practice. the Chinese president. like most heads of state in the world. has the power to promulgate statutes and holds supreme diplomatic and ceremonial rights. Under the current Constitution. the president has the power to promulgate statutes adopted by the NPC; appoint and remove members of the State Council; confer State medals and titles of honor in line with the decisions of the NPC and its Standing Committee; issue orders for special pardons; proclaim martial law; declare a state of war and issue orders of mobilization; accept letters of credential offered by foreign diplomatic representatives on behalf of the People`s Republic of China; appoint and recall China`s diplomatic envoys stationed abroad; and ratify and abrogate treaties and important agreements signed with foreign states.
China`s system of the head of state is a system of collective leadership. The president is subordinate to the NPC and directly receives instructions from the supreme organ of State power.
To date. six men have held the office of the president of the People`s Republic of China: Mao Zedong. Liu Shaoqi. Li Xiannian. Yang Shangkun. Jiang Zemin. and the current president Hu Jintao.
The State Council
Vice-Premiers: Huang Ju Wu Yi Zeng Peiyan Hui Liangyu
State Councillors: Zhou Yongkang Cao Gangchuan Tang Jiaxuan Hua Jianmin Chen Zhili
State Council Secretary General: Hua Jianmin(concurrently)
The State Council of the People`s Republic of China. namely the Central People`s Government. is the highest executive organ of State power. as well as the highest organ of State administration. The State Council is composed of a premier. vice-premiers. State councillors. ministers in charge of ministries and commissions. the auditor-general and the secretary-general. The premier of the State Council is nominated by the president. reviewed by the NPC. and appointed and removed by the president. Other members of the State Council are nominated by the premier. reviewed by the NPC or its Standing Committee. and appointed and removed by the president. In the State Council. a single term of each office is five years. and incumbents cannot be reappointed after two successive terms.
The State Council follows the system of premier responsibility in work while various ministries and commissions under the State Council follow the system of ministerial responsibility. In dealing with foreign affairs. State councillors can conduct important activities on behalf the premier after being entrusted by the premier of the State Council. The auditor-general is the head of the State Auditing Administration. in charge of auditing and supervising State finances . The secretary-general. under the premier. is responsible for the day-to-day work of the State Council and is in charge of the general office of the State Council.
The State Council is responsible for carrying out the principles and policies of the Communist Party of China as well as the regulations and laws adopted by the NPC. and dealing with such affairs as China`s internal politics. diplomacy. national defense. finance. economy. culture and education.
Under the current Constitution. the State Council exercises the power of administrative legislation. the power to submit proposals. the power of administrative leadership. the power of economic management. the power of diplomatic administration. the power of social administration. and other powers granted by the NPC and its Standing Committee.
Ministries and Commissions under the State Council:
Ministry of Foreign Affairs
Ministry of National Defense
State Development and Reform Commission
Ministry of Education
Ministry of Science and Technology
State Commission of Science. Technology and Industry for National Defense
State Ethnic Affairs Commission
Ministry of Public Security
Ministry of State Security
Ministry of Supervision
Ministry of Civil Affairs
Ministry of Justice
Ministry of Finance
Ministry of Personnel
Ministry of Labour and Social Security
Ministry of Land and Resources
Ministry of Construction
Ministry of Railways
Ministry of Communications
Ministry of Information Industry
Ministry of Water Resources
Ministry of Agriculture
Ministry of Commerce
Ministry of Culture
Ministry of Health
State Population and Family Planning Commission
People`s Bank of China
National Audit Office
Special Organization directly under the State Council:
Commission of the State-owned Assets Supervision and Administration
Organizations directly under the State Council:
General Administration of Customs
State Bureau of Taxation
State Environmental Protection Administration
Civil Aviation Administration of China
State Administration of Radio. Film and Television
State Sports General Administration
State Statistics Bureau
State Administration for Industry and Commerce
State Press and Publication Administration
State Forestry Bureau
General Administration of Quality Supervision.Inspection and Quarantine
State Food and Drug Administration
State Intellectual Property Office
National Tourism Administration
State Administration for Religious Affairs
Counsellor`s Office under the State Council
Bureau of Government Offices Administration
State Administration of Work Safety
Office of Overseas Chinese Affairs
Taiwan Affairs Office
Hong Kong and Macao Affairs Office
Legislative Affairs Office
Xinhua News Agency
Chinese Academy of Sciences
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences
Chinese Academy of Engineering
Development Research Center
National School of Administration
State Seismological Bureau
China Meteorological Administration
China Banking Regulatory Commission (CBRC)
China Securities Regulatory Commission
China Insurance Regulatory Commission
State Electricity Regulatory Commission (SERC)
National Council for Social Security Fund
National Natural Science Foundation
Administrations and Bureaus under the Ministries & Commissions:
State Grain Bureau
State Tobacco Monopoly Industry Bureau
State Bureau of Foreign Experts Affairs
State Oceanography Bureau
State Bureau of Surveying & Mapping
State Postal Bureau
State Bureau of Cultural Relics
State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine
State Administration of Foreign Exchange